Common Attack Vectors in Automotive Security

Remote keyless entry systems: Attackers can exploit weaknesses in keyless entry systems to unlock vehicles, start the engine, and even steal cars using relay attacks, code grabbing, or replay attacks.

Infotainment systems: Cybercriminals can compromise infotainment systems by exploiting vulnerabilities in their software, gaining unauthorized access to sensitive data or even taking control of critical vehicle functions.

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication: V2X communication systems, including vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, are susceptible to attacks such as message spoofing, interception, or jamming, which could lead to incorrect information being sent to the vehicle or disruption of communication.

On-board diagnostics (OBD) port: The OBD port provides access to a vehicle’s internal systems and can be exploited by attackers to gain unauthorized control over various car functions, extract sensitive data, or inject malicious code.

Controller Area Network (CAN) bus: The CAN bus is the primary communication system between the various electronic control units (ECUs) within a vehicle. Attackers can target the CAN bus to inject malicious messages, alter data, or perform denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, leading to loss of control or malfunction of the vehicle’s systems.

Telematics systems: Telematics systems transmit data between vehicles and external networks, such as remote servers or mobile devices. Cybercriminals can exploit vulnerabilities in these systems to intercept data, track vehicle locations, or gain unauthorized control over vehicle functions.

Wireless communication protocols: Vehicles use various wireless communication protocols, such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and cellular networks, which can be targeted by attackers to intercept or inject data, exploit vulnerabilities, or launch denial-of-service attacks.

Software and firmware updates: Attackers can compromise the update process by providing malicious updates or exploiting vulnerabilities in the update mechanism, potentially leading to the installation of malware or unauthorized modification of the vehicle’s software.

Supply chain attacks: These attacks target vulnerabilities within the automotive supply chain, such as insecure components, software, or communication protocols. Attackers can exploit these weaknesses to compromise the security of the final product, potentially affecting multiple vehicles or systems.

Social engineering attacks: Attackers may use social engineering techniques, such as phishing, to manipulate individuals into revealing sensitive information, such as login credentials or personal data, which could then be used to compromise the security of connected vehicles.